perfume

This hashtag in English

Last updated 17w.

Perfume (UK: /ˈpɜːfjm/, US: /pərˈfjm/; French: parfum) is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds, fixatives and solvents, usually in liquid form, used to give the human body, animals, food, objects, and living-spaces an agreeable scent. The 1939 Nobel Laureate for Chemistry, Leopold Ružička stated in 1945 that "right from the earliest days of scientific chemistry up to the present time perfumes have substantially contributed to the development of organic chemistry as regards methods, systematic classification, and theory."

Ancient texts and archaeological excavations show the use of perfumes in some of the earliest human civilizations. Modern perfumery began in the late 19th century with the commercial synthesis of aroma compounds such as vanillin or coumarin, which allowed for the composition of perfumes with smells previously unattainable solely from natural aromatics.

The word perfume derives from the Latin perfumare, meaning "to smoke through". Perfumery, as the art of making perfumes, began in ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus Valley Civilization and possibly Ancient China. It was further refined by the Romans and the Muslims.

The world's first-recorded chemist is considered to be a woman named Tapputi, a perfume maker mentioned in a cuneiform tablet from the 2nd millennium BC in Mesopotamia. She distilled flowers, oil, and calamus with other aromatics, then filtered and put them back in the still several times.

On the Indian subcontinent, perfume and perfumery existed in the Indus civilization (3300 BC – 1300 BC).

In 2003, archaeologists uncovered what are believed[by whom?] to be the world's oldest surviving perfumes in Pyrgos, Cyprus. The perfumes date back more than 4,000 years. They were discovered in an ancient perfumery, a 300-square-meter (3,230 sq ft) factory housing at least 60 stills, mixing bowls, funnels, and perfume bottles. In ancient times people used herbs and spices, such as almond, coriander, myrtle, conifer resin, and bergamot, as well as flowers. In May 2018, an ancient perfume "Rodo" (Rose) was recreated for the Greek National Archaeological Museum's anniversary show "Countless Aspects of Beauty", allowing visitors to approach antiquity through their olfaction receptors.

In the 9th century the Arab chemist Al-Kindi (Alkindus) wrote the Book of the Chemistry of Perfume and Distillations, which contained more than a hundred recipes for fragrant oils, salves, aromatic waters, and substitutes or imitations of costly drugs. The book also described 107 methods and recipes for perfume-making and perfume-making equipment, such as the alembic (which still bears its Arabic name. [from Greek ἄμβιξ, "cup", "beaker"] described by Synesius in the 4th century).

The Persian chemist Ibn Sina (also known as Avicenna) introduced the process of extracting oils from flowers by means of distillation, the procedure most commonly used today. He first experimented with the rose. Until his discovery, liquid perfumes consisted of mixtures of oil and crushed herbs or petals, which made a strong blend. Rose water was more delicate, and immediately became popular. Both the raw ingredients and the distillation technology significantly influenced western perfumery and scientific developments, particularly chemistry.

The art of perfumery was presumably known in western Europe from 1221, taking into account the monks' recipes of Santa Maria delle Vigne or Santa Maria Novella of Florence, Italy. In the east, the Hungarians produced around 1370 a perfume made of scented oils blended in an alcohol solution – best known as Hungary Water – at the behest of Queen Elizabeth of Hungary. The art of perfumery prospered in Renaissance Italy, and in the 16th century the personal perfumer to Catherine de' Medici (1519–1589), René the Florentine (Renato il fiorentino), took Italian refinements to France. His laboratory was connected with her apartments by a secret passageway, so that no formulae could be stolen en route. Thanks to Rene, France quickly became one of the European centers of perfume and cosmetics manufacture. Cultivation of flowers for their perfume essence, which had begun in the 14th century, grew into a major industry in the south of France.

Between the 16th and 17th centuries, perfumes were used primarily by the wealthy to mask body odors resulting from infrequent bathing.[citation needed] In 1693, Italian barber Giovanni Paolo Feminis created a perfume water called Aqua Admirabilis, today best known as eau de cologne; his nephew Johann Maria Farina (Giovanni Maria Farina) took over the business in 1732.

By the 18th century the Grasse region of France, Sicily, and Calabria (in Italy) were growing aromatic plants to provide the growing perfume industry with raw materials. Even today, Italy and France remain the center of European perfume design and trade.

Ancient Egyptian perfume vase in shape of an amphoriskos; 664–630 BC; glass: 8 × 4 cm (3.1 × 1.5  in); Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)

Ancient Greek perfume bottle in shape of an athlete binding a victory ribbon around his head; circa 540s BC; Ancient Agora Museum (Athens)

Etruscan perfume vase, which is inscripted the word "suthina" ("for the tomb"); early 2nd century BC; bronze; height: 16 cm; Louvre

Late Hellenistic glass gold-band mosaic alabastron (perfume bottle); 1st century BC; glass and gold leaf; Metropolitan Museum of Art

Roman perfume bottle; 1st century AD; glass; 5.2 x 3.8 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art

Partially broken perfume amphora; 2nd century AD; glass; from Ephesus; Ephesus Archaeological Museum (Selçuk, Turkey)

British Rococo perfume vase; circa 1761; soft-paste porcelain; overall: 43.2 × 29.2 × 17.8 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art

British Neoclassical pair of perfume burners; probably circa 1770; derbyshire spar, tortoiseshell, and wood, Carrara marble base, gilded brass mounts, gilded copper liner; 33 × 14.3 × 14.3 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art

Art Nouveau perfume bottle; circa 1900; glass with gilt metal cover; overall: 13.4 cm; Cleveland Museum of Art (Cleveland, Ohio, USA)

Perfume types reflect the concentration of aromatic compounds in a solvent, which in fine fragrance is typically ethanol or a mix of water and ethanol. Various sources differ considerably in the definitions of perfume types. The intensity and longevity of a perfume is based on the concentration, intensity, and longevity of the aromatic compounds, or perfume oils, used. As the percentage of aromatic compounds increases, so does the intensity and longevity of the scent. Specific terms are used to describe a fragrance's approximate concentration by the percent of perfume oil in the volume of the final product. The most widespread terms are:

There is much confusion over the term "cologne", which has three meanings. The first and oldest definition refers to a family of fresh, citrus-based fragrances distilled using extracts from citrus, floral, and woody ingredients. Supposedly these were first developed in the early 18th century in Cologne, Germany, hence the name. This type of "classical cologne" describes unisex compositions "which are basically citrus blends and do not have a perfume parent." Examples include Mäurer & Wirtz's 4711 (created in 1799), and Guerlain's Eau de Cologne impériale (1853).

In the 20th century, the term took on a second meaning. Fragrance companies began to offer lighter, less concentrated interpretations of their existing perfumes, making their products available to a wider range of customers. Guerlain, for example, offered an eau de Cologne version of its flagship perfume Shalimar. In contrast to classical colognes, this type of modern cologne is a lighter, diluted, less concentrated interpretation of a more concentrated product, typically a pure parfum. The cologne version is often the lightest concentration from a line of fragrance products.

Finally, the term "cologne" has entered the English language as a generic, overarching term to denote a fragrance worn by a man, regardless of its concentration. The actual product worn by a man may technically be an eau de toilette, but he may still say that he "wears cologne". A similar problem surrounds the term "perfume", which can be used in a generic sense to refer to fragrances marketed to women, whether or not the fragrance is actually an extrait.

Classical colognes first appeared in Europe in the 17th century. The first fragrance labeled a "parfum" extract with a high concentration of aromatic compounds was Guerlain's Jicky in 1889. Eau de toilette appeared alongside parfum around the turn of the century. The EdP concentration and terminology is the most recent. Parfum de toilette and EdP began to appear in the 1970s and gained popularity in the 1980s.

The wide range in the percentages of aromatic compounds that may be present in each concentration means that the terminology of extrait, EdP, EdT, and EdC is quite imprecise. Although an EdP will often be more concentrated than an EdT and in turn an EdC, this is not always the case. Different perfumeries or perfume houses assign different amounts of oils to each of their perfumes. Therefore, although the oil concentration of a perfume in EdP dilution will necessarily be higher than the same perfume in EdT from within a company's same range, the actual amounts vary among perfume houses. An EdT from one house may have a higher concentration of aromatic compounds than an EdP from another.

Furthermore, some fragrances with the same product name but having a different concentration may not only differ in their dilutions, but actually use different perfume oil mixtures altogether. For instance, in order to make the EdT version of a fragrance brighter and fresher than its EdP, the EdT oil may be "tweaked" to contain slightly more top notes or fewer base notes. Chanel No. 5 is a good example: its parfum, EdP, EdT, and now-discontinued EdC concentrations are in fact different compositions (the parfum dates to 1921, whereas the EdP was not developed until the 1980s). In some cases, words such as extrême, intense, or concentrée that might indicate a higher aromatic concentration are actually completely different fragrances, related only because of a similar perfume accord. An example of this is Chanel's Pour Monsieur and Pour Monsieur concentrée.

Historically, women's fragrances tended to have higher levels of aromatic compounds than men's fragrances. Fragrances marketed to men were typically sold as EdT or EdC, rarely as EdP or perfume extracts. This is changing in the modern fragrance world, especially as fragrances are becoming more unisex. Women's fragrances used to be common in all levels of concentration, but today are mainly seen in parfum, EdP and EdT concentrations.[citation needed]

Perfume oils are often diluted with a solvent, though this is not always the case, and its necessity is disputed. By far the most common solvent for perfume-oil dilution is alcohol, typically a mixture of ethanol and water or a rectified spirit. Perfume oil can also be diluted by means of neutral-smelling oils such as fractionated coconut oil, or liquid waxes such as jojoba oil.

The conventional application of pure perfume (parfum extrait) in Western cultures is at pulse points, such as behind the ears, the nape of the neck, and the insides of wrists, elbows and knees, so that the pulse point will warm the perfume and release fragrance continuously. According to perfumer Sophia Grojsman behind the knees is the ideal point to apply perfume in order that the scent may rise. The modern perfume industry encourages the practice of layering fragrance so that it is released in different intensities depending upon the time of the day. Lightly scented products such as bath oil, shower gel, and body lotion are recommended for the morning; eau de toilette is suggested for the afternoon; and perfume applied to the pulse points for evening.[self-published source] Cologne fragrance is released rapidly, lasting around 2 hours. Eau de toilette lasts from 2 to 4 hours, while perfume may last up to six hours.

A variety of factors can influence how fragrance interacts with the wearer's own physiology and affect the perception of the fragrance. Diet is one factor, as eating spicy and fatty foods can increase the intensity of a fragrance. The use of medications can also impact the character of a fragrance. The relative dryness of the wearer's skin is important, since dry skin will not hold fragrance as long as skin with more oil.

The precise formulae of commercial perfumes are kept secret. Even if they were widely published, they would be dominated by such complex ingredients and odorants that they would be of little use in providing a guide to the general consumer in description of the experience of a scent. Nonetheless, connoisseurs of perfume can become extremely skillful at identifying components and origins of scents in the same manner as wine experts.

The most practical way to start describing a perfume is according to the elements of the fragrance notes of the scent or the "family" it belongs to, all of which affect the overall impression of a perfume from first application to the last lingering hint of scent.

The trail of scent left behind by a person wearing perfume is called its sillage, after the French word for "wake", as in the trail left by a boat in water.

Perfume is described in a musical metaphor as having three sets of notes, making the harmonious scent accord. The notes unfold over time, with the immediate impression of the top note leading to the deeper middle notes, and the base notes gradually appearing as the final stage. These notes are created carefully with knowledge of the evaporation process of the perfume.

The scents in the top and middle notes are influenced by the base notes; conversely, the scents of the base notes will be altered by the types of fragrance materials used as middle notes. Manufacturers who publish perfume notes typically do so with the fragrance components presented as a fragrance pyramid, using imaginative and abstract terms for the components listed.

The grouping perfumes can never be completely objective or definitive. Many fragrances contain aspects of different families. Even a perfume designated as "single flower" will have subtle undertones of other aromatics. There are hardly any true unitary-scent perfumes consisting of a single aromatic material.

The family classification is a starting point to describe a perfume, but does not fully characterize it.

The traditional categories which emerged around 1900:

Since 1945, new categories have emerged to describe modern scents, due to great advances in the technology of compound design and synthesis, as well as the natural development of styles and tastes:

This newer classification method is widely used in retail and the fragrance industry, created in 1983 by the perfume consultant Michael Edwards. The new scheme simplifies classification and naming, as well as showing the relationships among the classes.

The five main families are Floral, Oriental, Woody, Aromatic Fougère, and Fresh, the first four from the classic terminology and the last from the modern oceanic category. Each of these are divided into subgroups and arranged around a wheel. In this scheme, Chanel No.5, traditionally classified as an aldehydic floral, is placed under the Soft Floral sub-group, while amber scents are within the Oriental group. Chypre perfumes are more ambiguous, having affinities with both the Oriental and Woody families. For instance, Guerlain Mitsouko is under Mossy Woods, but Hermès Rouge, a more floral chypre, is under Floral Oriental.

Plants have long been used in perfumery as a source of essential oils and aroma compounds. These aromatics are usually secondary metabolites produced by plants as protection against herbivores, infections, as well as to attract pollinators. Plants are by far the largest source of fragrant compounds used in perfumery. The sources of these compounds may be derived from various parts of a plant. A plant can offer more than one source of aromatics, for instance the aerial portions and seeds of coriander have remarkably different odors from each other. Orange leaves, blossoms, and fruit zest are the respective sources of petitgrain, neroli, and orange oils.

Many modern perfumes contain synthesized odorants. Synthetics can provide fragrances which are not found in nature. For instance, Calone, a compound of synthetic origin, imparts a fresh ozonous metallic marine scent that is widely used in contemporary perfumes. Synthetic aromatics are often used as an alternate source of compounds that are not easily obtained from natural sources. For example, linalool and coumarin are both naturally occurring compounds that can be inexpensively synthesized from terpenes. Orchid scents (typically salicylates) are usually not obtained directly from the plant itself but are instead synthetically created to match the fragrant compounds found in various orchids.

One of the most commonly used classes of synthetic aromatics by far are the white musks. These materials are found in all forms of commercial perfumes as a neutral background to the middle notes. These musks are added in large quantities to laundry detergents in order to give washed clothes a lasting "clean" scent.

The majority of the world's synthetic aromatics are created by relatively few companies. They include:

Each of these companies patents several processes for the production of aromatic synthetics annually.

Natural and synthetics are used for their different odor characteristics in perfumery

Before perfumes can be composed, the odorants used in various perfume compositions must first be obtained. Synthetic odorants are produced through organic synthesis and purified. Odorants from natural sources require the use of various methods to extract the aromatics from the raw materials. The results of the extraction are either essential oils, absolutes, concretes, or butters, depending on the amount of waxes in the extracted product.

All these techniques will, to a certain extent, distort the odor of the aromatic compounds obtained from the raw materials. This is due to the use of heat, harsh solvents, or through exposure to oxygen in the extraction process which will denature the aromatic compounds, which either change their odor character or renders them odorless.

Although fragrant extracts are known to the general public as the generic term "essential oils", a more specific language is used in the fragrance industry to describe the source, purity, and technique used to obtain a particular fragrant extract. Of these extracts, only absolutes, essential oils, and tinctures are directly used to formulate perfumes.

Products from different extraction methods are known under different names even though their starting materials are the same. For instance, orange blossoms from Citrus aurantium that have undergone solvent extraction produces "orange blossom absolute" but that which have been steam distilled is known as "neroli oil".

Perfume compositions are an important part of many industries ranging from the luxury goods sectors, food services industries, to manufacturers of various household chemicals. The purpose of using perfume or fragrance compositions in these industries is to affect customers through their sense of smell and entice them into purchasing the perfume or perfumed product. As such there is significant interest in producing a perfume formulation that people will find aesthetically pleasing.

The job of composing perfumes that will be sold is left up to an expert on perfume composition or known in the fragrance industry as the perfumer. They are also sometimes referred to affectionately as a "Nez" (French for nose) due to their fine sense of smell and skill in smell composition.

The composition of a perfume typically begins with a brief by the perfumer's employer or an outside customer. The customers to the perfumer or their employers, are typically fashion houses or large corporations of various industries. The perfumer will then go through the process of blending multiple perfume mixtures and sell the formulation to the customer, often with modifications of the composition of the perfume. The perfume composition will then be either used to enhance another product as a functional fragrance (shampoos, make-up, detergents, car interiors, etc.), or marketed and sold directly to the public as a fine fragrance.

Although there is no single "correct" technique for the formulation of a perfume, there are general guidelines as to how a perfume can be constructed from a concept. Although many ingredients do not contribute to the smell of a perfume, many perfumes include colorants and anti-oxidants to improve the marketability and shelf life of the perfume, respectively.

Perfume oils usually contain tens to hundreds of ingredients and these are typically organized in a perfume for the specific role they will play. These ingredients can be roughly grouped into four groups:

The top, middle, and base notes of a fragrance may have separate primary scents and supporting ingredients. The perfume's fragrance oils are then blended with ethyl alcohol and water, aged in tanks for several weeks and filtered through processing equipment to, respectively, allow the perfume ingredients in the mixture to stabilize and to remove any sediment and particles before the solution can be filled into the perfume bottles.

Instead of building a perfume from "ground up", many modern perfumes and colognes are made using fragrance bases or simply bases. Each base is essentially modular perfume that is blended from essential oils and aromatic chemicals, and formulated with a simple concept such as "fresh cut grass" or "juicy sour apple". Many of Guerlain's Aqua Allegoria line, with their simple fragrance concepts, are good examples of what perfume fragrance bases are like.

The effort used in developing bases by fragrance companies or individual perfumers may equal that of a marketed perfume, since they are useful in that they are reusable. On top of its reusability, the benefit in using bases for construction are quite numerous:

Creating perfumes through reverse engineering with analytical techniques such as Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS) can reveal the "general" formula for any particular perfume. The difficulty of GC/MS analysis arises due to the complexity of a perfume's ingredients. This is particularly due to the presence of natural essential oils and other ingredients consisting of complex chemical mixtures. However, "anyone armed with good GC/MS equipment and experienced in using this equipment can today, within days, find out a great deal about the formulation of any perfume... customers and competitors can analyze most perfumes more or less precisely."

Antique or badly preserved perfumes undergoing this analysis can also be difficult due to the numerous degradation by-products and impurities that may have resulted from breakdown of the odorous compounds. Ingredients and compounds can usually be ruled out or identified using gas chromatograph (GC) smellers, which allow individual chemical components to be identified both through their physical properties and their scent. Reverse engineering of best-selling perfumes in the market is a very common practice in the fragrance industry due to the relative simplicity of operating GC equipment, the pressure to produce marketable fragrances, and the highly lucrative nature of the perfume market.

It is doubtful whether perfumes qualify as appropriate copyright subject matter under the US Copyright Act. The issue has not yet been addressed by any US court. A perfume's scent is not eligible for trademark protection: the scent serves as the functional purpose of the product.

In 2006 the Dutch Supreme Court granted copyright protection to Lancôme's perfume Tresor (Lancôme v. Kecofa). The French Supreme Court has twice taken the position that perfumes lack the creativity to constitute copyrightable expressions (Bsiri-Barbir v. Haarman & Reimer, 2006; Beaute Prestige International v. Senteur Mazal, 2008).

A different kind of copying perfumes is known in ex-USSR countries as "номерная парфюмерия" (literally "numbered perfumery"):

A "number-making" company with perfumery equipment would use their own, one-style-for-all bottle; de jure labeling a knock-off perfume as "aroma in the direction of [the well-known perfume]" or "versions" of certain branded perfumes.

The questionable part of numbered perfumery naming is the idea to openly mark perfume #XXX (say, #105) as either "type" or "version", or "аромат направления" (literally "aroma in the direction of") of a well-known perfum.

In small online "bulk", however (in purchases over 5000RUB), a whole 100ml bottle of such perfume (or 50ml bottle of "scent oil" of same "direction") costs only around 4 EUR (or up to 5 EUR (~450 RUB) for a "selective" perfume made to resemble a "niche" rare expensive aroma instead of a popular luxe).

Perfume ingredients, regardless of natural or synthetic origins, may all cause health or environmental problems when used. Although the areas are under active research, much remains to be learned about the effects of fragrance on human health and the environment.

Evidence in peer-reviewed journals shows that some fragrances can cause asthmatic reactions in some individuals, especially those with severe or atopic asthma. Many fragrance ingredients can also cause headaches, allergic skin reactions or nausea.

In some cases, an excessive use of perfumes may cause allergic reactions of the skin. For instance, acetophenone, ethyl acetate[citation needed] and acetone while present in many perfumes, are also known or potential respiratory allergens. Nevertheless, this may be misleading, since the harm presented by many of these chemicals (either natural or synthetic) is dependent on environmental conditions and their concentrations in a perfume. For instance, linalool, which is listed as an irritant, causes skin irritation when it degrades to peroxides, however the use of antioxidants in perfumes or reduction in concentrations can prevent this. As well, the furanocoumarin present in natural extracts of grapefruit or celery can cause severe allergic reactions and increase sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation.

Some research on natural aromatics have shown that many contain compounds that cause skin irritation. However some studies, such as IFRA's research claim that opoponax is too dangerous to be used in perfumery, still lack scientific consensus. It is also true that sometimes inhalation alone can cause skin irritation.[citation needed]

A number of national and international surveys have identified balsam of Peru, often used in perfumes, as being in the "top five" allergens most commonly causing patch test reactions in people referred to dermatology clinics. A study in 2001 found that 3.8% of the general population patch tested was allergic to it. Many perfumes contain components identical to balsam of Peru.

Balsam of Peru is used as a marker for perfume allergy. Its presence in a cosmetic is denoted by the INCI term Myroxylon pereirae. Balsam of Peru has been banned by the International Fragrance Association since 1982 from use as a fragrance compound, but may be present as an extract or distillate in other products, where mandatory labelling is not required for usage of 0.4% or less.

There is scientific evidence that nitro-musks such as musk xylene could cause cancer in some specific animal tests. These reports were evaluated by the EU Scientific Committee for Consumer Safety (SCCS, formerly the SCCNFP) and musk xylene was found to be safe for continued use in cosmetic products. It is in fact part of the procedures of the Cosmetic Regulation in Europe that materials classified as carcinogens require such a safety evaluation by the authorities to be allowed in cosmetic consumer products.

Although other ingredients such as polycyclic synthetic musks, have been reported to be positive in some in-vitro hormone assays, these reports have been reviewed by various authorities. For example, for one of the main polycyclic musks Galaxolide (HHCB) these reviews include those of the EU Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety, the EU's Priority Substances Review, the EU Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Risk, and more recently also the US EPA. The outcome of all of these reviews over the past decade or so is that there are no safety concerns for human health. Reviews with similar positive outcomes also exist for another main polycyclic musk (AHTN)—for instance, on its safe use in cosmetics by the EU.

Many natural aromatics, such as oakmoss absolutes, basil oil, rose oil and many others contain allergens or carcinogenic compounds, the safety of which is either governed by regulations (e.g. allowed methyl eugenol levels in the EU Cosmetics Regulation (Entry 102, Annex III of the EU Cosmetics Regulation.) or through various limitations set by the International Fragrance Association.

Synthetic musks are pleasant in smell and relatively inexpensive, as such they are often employed in large quantities to cover the unpleasant scent of laundry detergents and many personal cleaning products. Due to their large-scale use, several types of synthetic musks have been found in human fat and milk, as well as in the sediments and waters of the Great Lakes.

These pollutants may pose additional health and environmental problems when they enter human and animal diets.

The demands for aromatic materials such as sandalwood, agarwood, and musk have led to the endangerment of these species, as well as illegal trafficking and harvesting.

The perfume industry in the US is not directly regulated by the FDA, instead the FDA controls the safety of perfumes through their ingredients and requires that they be tested to the extent that they are Generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Due to the need for protection of trade secrets, companies rarely give the full listing of ingredients regardless of their effects on health. In Europe, as from 11 March 2005, the mandatory listing of a set of 26 recognized fragrance allergens was enforced. The requirement to list these materials is dependent on the intended use of the final product. The limits above which the allergens are required to be declared are 0.001% for products intended to remain on the skin, and 0.01% for those intended to be rinsed off. This has resulted in many old perfumes like chypres and fougère classes, which require the use of oakmoss extract, being reformulated.

Fragrance compounds in perfumes will degrade or break down if improperly stored in the presence of heat, light, oxygen, and extraneous organic materials. Proper preservation of perfumes involves keeping them away from sources of heat and storing them where they will not be exposed to light. An opened bottle will keep its aroma intact for several years, as long as it is well stored. However, the presence of oxygen in the head space of the bottle and environmental factors will in the long run alter the smell of the fragrance.

Perfumes are best preserved when kept in light-tight aluminium bottles or in their original packaging when not in use, and refrigerated to relatively low temperatures: between 3–7 °C (37–45 °F). Although it is difficult to completely remove oxygen from the headspace of a stored flask of fragrance, opting for spray dispensers instead of rollers and "open" bottles will minimize oxygen exposure. Sprays also have the advantage of isolating fragrance inside a bottle and preventing it from mixing with dust, skin, and detritus, which would degrade and alter the quality of a perfume.

There exist several archives and museums devoted to the preservation of historical perfumes, namely the Osmothèque, which stocks over 3,000 perfumes from the past two millennia in their original formulations. All scents in their collection are preserved in non-actinic glass flasks flushed with argon gas, stored in thermally insulated compartments maintained at 12 °C (53.6 °F) in a large vault.



【New】ライブや大規模フェスの中止によって、すべての予定が空白になった1年だったという、きゃりーぱみゅぱみゅ。 Perfumeのあーちゃんに相談して元気を取り戻し、新たにやりたいことも見つけたのだといいます。
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555 .... y no es una colonia / perfume 🌡 .... por cierto : para los que todavía se bañan 🛀🏽 = la recomiendo 😉
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This year, try something new at subukan ang bango ng 5-flower perfume with Sunsilk Smooth and Manageable (with regu…
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@jgaieski_ perfume do bom
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RT @Levis_Japan: Levi’s® Red ワークウェアにインスパイアされたLevi’s® Redコレクションより、High Looseが登場。ルーズなレッグとハイウエストでお腹周りをコンパクトに見せるシルエットは脚長効果も抜群です。ホワイト on ホワイトの…
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Ese perfume😍🤤
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オンエア曲① 7:31 スタートライン / #海援隊 7:46 変わらぬ想い / #グレン・メデイロス 7:49 アイ・ライク・ショパン / #ガゼボ 7:56 表通りは欅通り / #中村雅俊 8:04 微かなカオリ…
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Sentí su perfume en el almacén y la sentí tan seca a mi reina...!!
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All I want is some perfume 🥺
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Hoy, por alguna extraña ocasión, tuve la oportunidad de oler el mismo perfume que usabas tú en otra persona. Todos…
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RT @Levis_Japan: Levi’s® Red ワークウェアにインスパイアされたLevi’s® Redコレクションより、High Looseが登場。ルーズなレッグとハイウエストでお腹周りをコンパクトに見せるシルエットは脚長効果も抜群です。ホワイト on ホワイトの…
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RT @OutsiderLooksIn: 01312021 Taeng Bubble 💌 “Hello. I love sweets and chocolates these days. Isn’t there a chocolate (scented) perfume? I…
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RT @MeredithGreyDC: When you realize that one brand of perfume on everyone's wishlist is sitting on your dresser, after that one BJ night.…
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RT @planetmarimari: Dark room perfume
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RT @met_greekroman: Glass alabastron (perfume bottle) #greekromanart #metmuseum
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RT @valeeentinaa17: El perfume de hombres ✨mi debilidad✨
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RT @GirlgroupsBR: TOP 10 MV's mais vistos lançados esse ano: 1. (G)I-DLE - HWAA 2. IU - Celebrity 3. DREAMCATCHER - Odd Eye 4. HYUNA - I'm…
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RT @solclarks: “me gusta tu perfume” ESTA EN MI TOP 5 DE HALAGOS FAVORITOS
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Dale encerio me va a quedar el perfume
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To sentindo o perfume dele até agr
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【お知らせ】グッズ向けのオフィシャル描きおこしデザイン「エクストラ・アートワークス」に新たに『KIRBY Mystic Perfume』が登場!春にアニメイト、キデイランド内PUPUPU MARKETでの先行販売イベントも計画中!…
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.@ArianaGrande saves the galaxy in limited-edition 'R.E.M.' comic book
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’Las aves al pasar le dicen: “¿No amas?, amar es tener alas.” Las flores que pisa le preguntan: “¿No amas?, amor e…
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@heavenwxlf A perfume. No sabría decirte cual, pwrdon.
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RT @EmeryLeeWho: The trick here is that it's not about making your character "relatable". Nobody finds it "relatable" that Gon can smell a…
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【定期】 Perfume 欅 平手友梨奈 花澤香菜 水樹奈々 citrus 沢城みゆき 白石 戸田恵梨香 内田有紀 新垣結衣 城之内 先生 大門 先生 ひろみちこ hrmck 等好きな方フォロー待ってます( ^ω^)
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@siilva_laryss Meu perfume é muito bommm 🥰
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- Mmm qué rico perfume. - Eau de Fuyu, bebé.
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curioso como uma música, um perfume, tem o poder de fazer a gente ter uma lembrança muito foda de algo que não tá m…
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RT @ETUKMMA: I saw my salary written on a bottle of perfume. . So you mean someone is out there smelling llike my salary? Nahhh... I'm in…
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@NlGHTNYX it does absolutely reek of a lush perfume store. but the gym part is fun. we just got a new rowing machin…
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Xqlq siempre me pasa que cuando esta por llegar mi cumple se me acaba el perfume, se me rompe el auricular, se me p…
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bruh... I like wearing perfume to bed tho😂
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@lmigaki Strong cologne/perfume
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@TheyDavis I got slammed Into the glass wall in from of Ross stealing some perfume for some girl I was dating 😂it w…
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RT @litgrrrl18: I think I spend more money on glues for my art projects than I do on high end moisturizer and perfume put together.
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Why the fuck are perfume commercials so weird?
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طلي اضحكيلو يا صبية..زياد الرحباني by Perfume de Andalus (Amin) on #SoundCloud ❤️
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RT @Alpha_Goddess93: Wild Passion Soap Bar is a Very popular fruity perfume. Comparable to Victoria Secret's Love Spell. Link in bio #natur…
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RT @marinadndy: "Marina, sedap gila bau perfume, perfume apa ni?" Ni antara 9 perfume yang I selalu suggest atau wajib cuba dekat customer…
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Bonjour à toutes et à tous! Ce matin, partons à la découverte de l'histoire du parfum, grâce au catalogue "The Roma…
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So this is a question foe my UK #fanfamily I cannot find in any supermarket a non perfume/scented laundry detergent…
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RT @feydaniels_: nice smells make me happy. candles, diffusers, perfume, room sprays, the whole lot
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RT @Fiorell48115672: Bebesita que rico tu perfume hueles al amor d mi vidaaaaaa FELICES 13M ORSINO
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RT @feydaniels_: nice smells make me happy. candles, diffusers, perfume, room sprays, the whole lot
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RT @qfredillas: Tend to ridicule God's people; they did it to John the Baptist They can't fix their problems, and so they just mask it Not…
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RT @feydaniels_: nice smells make me happy. candles, diffusers, perfume, room sprays, the whole lot
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@kxryne você já tá lá? quero um perfume de mimo
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toda vez que eu lembro da ingrid falando que uso perfume (vermelho) eu choro de rir
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RT @F5Multimarcas: Lança perfume nunca decepciona😎 Já quero o kit completo! SÓ ME CHAMAR NA DM OU NO WHATSAPP vendedora Lilian
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@valentinnacejas Ysi haces dos pasos y ya te pones perfume hijadeputa
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RT @KDANIEL_SUPPORT: [📸] Kang Daniel X Givenchy Perfume x 1st Look Magazine Photo Release ~2021.02.04 ❤+⤴️
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Mas é aquilo né? Eu amoooo perfume também ta?! 😍
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RT @AusMeshi: Apa beza Body Mist, Eau De Toilette, dan Eau De Parfum ? Pernah tak kita tengok botol perfume tu, kejap ada EDT, kejap EDP.…
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vish uma vez comprei na Avon sai com vários sabonetes e afins, 2 perfumes, shampoo e uma máscara aí hj comprei cois…
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@Frente1924 @EduardoLuisFut asi es el perfume solo juega cuando cuando quiere
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Preciso de um perfume 😪
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@shhd22217 @YNadheri كم مبلغ المهر ؟!
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1.O que a Selena criou em memória da sua irmã Scarlet? A) Linha de roupa B) Perfume C) Esmalte D) Case pra celular
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#KangDaniel Shares Goals For His Upcoming Comeback, His Interest In Perfume, And More
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#Perfume #ゲッターズ飯田 さんが 本日放送のTBS「#ぴったんこカンカン」にて、 🍀2021年 Perfumeを聴くと運気が上がる!🤞 とご紹介いただきました✨ Perfumeの音楽はこちらから💁‍♀️ #prfm
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「鞘師里保と〇〇と」にPerfumeのっちが2週連続で登場 #鞘師里保 #のっち #Perfume
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Bue que era fuerte el perfume 🤤
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RT @beatrixplus: The weekend is here, yaay💃💃💃 Announce your presence with a powerful perfume... These perfumes are still available.
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RT @feydaniels_: nice smells make me happy. candles, diffusers, perfume, room sprays, the whole lot
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RT @feydaniels_: nice smells make me happy. candles, diffusers, perfume, room sprays, the whole lot
31033
RT @feydaniels_: nice smells make me happy. candles, diffusers, perfume, room sprays, the whole lot
31033
RT @feydaniels_: nice smells make me happy. candles, diffusers, perfume, room sprays, the whole lot
31033
今週は脳みそちょうつかう感じだったので、癒しとしてPerfume Clips2を、 1から観るともう胸熱です🥺近未来三部作(エレワ、コンピュータシティ、リニアモーターガール)も好きなんですけれど、これもひっそりとかなりすき………
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RT @AauraFragrance: Happy weekend❤ Still here to take orders for undiluted perfume oils Moq=5 3ml-N350 6ml-N700 8ml-1000 10ml-N1100 12ml-N1…
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RT @AauraFragrance: Happy weekend❤ Still here to take orders for undiluted perfume oils Moq=5 3ml-N350 6ml-N700 8ml-1000 10ml-N1100 12ml-N1…
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RT @AauraFragrance: Happy weekend❤ Still here to take orders for undiluted perfume oils Moq=5 3ml-N350 6ml-N700 8ml-1000 10ml-N1100 12ml-N1…
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Curl my hair, put some makeup on, heels, and my favorite perfume. purrr
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RT @feydaniels_: nice smells make me happy. candles, diffusers, perfume, room sprays, the whole lot
31033
RT @feydaniels_: nice smells make me happy. candles, diffusers, perfume, room sprays, the whole lot
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RT @yamaken_edu: ぼくが書いた「論文」読みたい人いますか?約9万字なので長いですがw   『天才系(アート型)ビジネス〜vol.1移住〜』 Perfume、ジャルジャル 、ゴッホ…などを調べてわかった、「強い個性を武器にして売れる」ための新しいビジネス理論を初公…
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RT @feydaniels_: nice smells make me happy. candles, diffusers, perfume, room sprays, the whole lot
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RT @TabsiraProject: A woman corrected Omar (RA) about the dowry. Abu Huraiara (RA) stopped a woman because of her perfume. Muslim men & w…
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RT @feydaniels_: nice smells make me happy. candles, diffusers, perfume, room sprays, the whole lot
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Favourite Everyday Fragrances - PaleGirlRambling
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Ariana Grande Sweet Like Candy Women's Perfume - Eau de Parfum | Kohls
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These Are the Most Popular Fragrances Among Fashion People - Fashionista
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Fragrances & Perfumes for Women | Dillard's
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31 perfume dupes that smell just like designer scents
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Chloe Nomad stripesnvibes , Chloe perfume, favorite scent, #nailpolish #chloe #perfume #nailsideas #accessories #gold
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Product:An intense new facet of the Coco Mademoiselle personality emerges to forge a powerful, deep, addictive fragrance that is irresistible in every way.Composition:An extreme, luminous and deep concentration of Patchouli infuses Coco Mademoiselle Eau De Parfum Intense with a voluptuous dimension. The warm, soft and feminine Amber accord-an intoxicating blend of Tonka Bean and Vanilla from Madagascar-wraps the scent in sensuality.Art Of Perfuming:The Eau de Parfum Intense comes in a spray bott
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A sensual sister to Bombshell, America’s No. 1 Fragrance.* Inspired by the beauty of our signature ribbon, our perfumers designed Bombshell Seduction to evoke the cool touch of satin on bare skin. French Sage opens the fragrance with an airy, refreshing feel. An intoxicating duo of white florals make up the glowing floral heart: signature White Peony and creamy Tuberose. Velvet Musk adds sexy, skin-like warmth, a mysterious end-note to this sheer beauty. The same scent you love, in a beautiful n
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perfume Pinterest Ideas
Jun 18, 2020 14:36
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Our Bubblegum melts really do smell good enough to eat, although we politely ask that you dont🙉 • • #waxmelts #homeinspo #perfume #love #alien #onemillion #instagram #glitter #diy #inspo #unicorns #purple #black #red #home #candles #fragrance #candles #explorepage #hearts #yellow #white #homedecor #design
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#love #homedecor #perfume #alien #explorepage
Jun 18, 2020 14:35
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#ด่วนมีจำนวนจำกัด #ช้าหมดอดนะจ้ะ 🔥🔥🔥โปรไฟไหม้ ป้าย King Power มี 20 แกะจากเเพ็คคู่ ล็อตสุดท้ายแล้วน้า หมดล็อตนี้ป้ายคิงจะปรับราคาขึ้นจ้า CLARINS Double Serum ขนาด 50ml. ป้าย King Power (ปกติ 4,900.-) พิเศษเหลือเพียง #2990บาท💕จ้า #จัดส่งฟรีEMS💁🏻 เซรั่มบำรุงผิวเพื่อต่อต้านความร่วงโรยแห่งวันอันดับ 1 พัฒนาขึ้นจากประสบการณ์ความเชี่ยวชาญตลอด 27 ปี จนได้ผลลัพธ์เซรั่มต่อต้านทุกสัญญานความร่วงโรยแห่งวัย ผิวดูเปล่งปลั่งขึ้นเพียงครั้งแรกที่ใช้ ริ้วรอยดูลดเลือนลง รูขุมขนดูกระชับ ผิวเนียนละเอียดขึ้นอย่างเห็นได้ชัดหลังจากใช้อย่างต่อเนื่อง ชัยชนะของผิวที่ดูอ่อนเยาว์ตลอดกาล ♥️ สั่งซื้อง่าย หลายช่องทาง⠀ ♥️ สั่งซื้อได้ตลอด 24 ชม. ♥️ สนใจแคปภาพ แล้วส่งมาที่ช่องแชทได้เลย @hivebeauty ______________________________🍭 📝สั่งซื้อ Line 🆔 bambie2936 ☎️0999742936 📸IG: hivebeauty 💻เพจ: hivebeautyofficial 📬ส่งฟรี EMS 2 ชิ้นขึ้นไป 🚚ส่งของทุกวัน ปณ.เซ็นทรัลลาดพร้าว ❤ของแท้100% ไม่แท้คืนเงิน 🌈แม่ค้าใจดีสอบถามได้น๊า 📖 ดูสินค้าอื่นๆ #clarinsthailand ได้ที่ #hivebeauty_Clarins #clarinsdoubleserum _____________________________🌠 #sbn #promote #promotefree #promotefree_shop #jeban #pantip #salehere #cosmetics #makeup #perfume #sale #promotion #siambrandname #promoteshop #ตามหาจนเจอ #cosmetics #เครื่องสำอาง #shopeeth #beauty #voguebeauty #ไอจี #weloveshopping #skincare #เซรั่ม
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#promoteshop #sbn #skincare #beauty #clarinsdoubleserum
Jun 18, 2020 14:35
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عطر مونتال انتنس كافيه .... توليفة العطر غير معقدة كعادة عطور مونتال التي تحوي قواسم مشتركة كثيرة، فالعطر ذو نفحة سكرية أشبه براحة حلوى غزل البنات Cotton Candy مع رائحة الفانليا المكثفة ثم يأتي الورد و الكهرمان (العنبر الراتنجي) الحاضران في معظم عطور مونتال، ولا يتبقى طبعا غير العود، لكن هنا تم حذف العود و أضيفة نفحة ضعيفة من القهوة، لتصبح رائحة العطر أقرب إلى رائحة فنجان “قهوة سكر زيادة” حيث تضيع معالم القهوة تحت وطأة كثافة السكر. طبعا القهوة هنا من النوع الهاديء أو قليل النكهة. أو ربما قهوة بالفانيليا و السكر حتى أكون دقيق. عطر مونتال انتنس كافيه Intense Cafe Montale Perfume في المجمل العطر سكري Sweet مع نفحة فانليا و قهوة و ورد. طبعا الفوحان حدث ولا حرج كعادة الكثير من عطور مونتال. مثلا ٥ رشات كثيفة على ملابسك و أنطلق. حتما سيلاحظ أصدقائك أو صديقاتك رائحة العطر. و العطر يصلح للرجال و النساء . . . #عطور_اصليه #عطور_نسائية #عطور_فرنسيه #عطور_رجالية #اكسبلور_explore #عطور ديزاينيرز#عطور ديور#عطور_نيش #fragrances#بغداد#perfume#المنصور#العراق#عطور شانيل#
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#perfume #fragrances
Jun 18, 2020 14:35
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รุ่นใหม่ล่าสุด!! Armani Acqua Di Gio Profondo 40ml เค้าเตอร์ 3,400฿. ♥️ขายเพียง 2,190 ฿ ส่งฟรี สคบ ครบ♥️. เพราะคำจำกัดความของ Profondo คือ บุรุษผู้รักอิสระเสรี เต็มไปด้วยมิติที่ลึกซึ้ง เจ้าของจิตวิญญาณอันสุขุมที่ยากจะหยั่งถึงเท่ะความลึกของท้องน้ำสีคราม ∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞. ✅Perfume official น้ำหอมแท้100% ✅ทุกขวดสามารถเช็คโค้ดได้ค่ะ ❌ไม่แกะกล่อง ❌ไม่ใช่ขวดตัดตำหนิ ❌ไม่สิงคโปร์ ไม่ฮ่องกง/ไม่ขายยุโรป no box ❌ไม่ขายของปลอม ❌ของแท้ไม่มีเกรดใดๆทั้งสิ้น 💸ไม่แท้ยินดีคืนเงิน ∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞ 👉🏻ติดต่อสอบถาม / สั่งซื้อสินค้า 🎯LINE : @perfumebyuk (มี@ข้างหน้านะคะ) IG : Perfume_officialuk #น้ำหอมเค้าเตอร์ #รับตัวแทนจำหน่าย #bvl #sale #น้ำหอมพร้อมส่ง #น้ำหอมผู้หญิง #perfume_officialuk #น้ำหอมแท้ #น้ำหอมหิ้ว #น้ำหอมแท้นำเข้า #เทสเตอร์ #น้ำหอมเทสเตอร์ #tester #น้ำหอมยุโรป #น้ำหอมแบรนด์เนม #น้ำหอมกล่องซีล #perfume #ไวออล #perfumesale #ตามหา #น้ำหอมผู้ชาย #พรีออเดอร์ #รับหิ้วของ #น้ำหอมมินิ #น้ำหอมแบ่งขาย #น้ำหอมแท้แบ่งขาย #giftset #ของขวัญ #น้ำหอมไวออล #โลชั่นน้ำหอม
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#perfume #perfumesale #tester #sale #bvl
Jun 18, 2020 14:35
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VALENTINO 👏🏻👏🏻👏🏻👏🏻👏🏻 Available for instant pick up FROM OUR LUXURY COLLECTIONS FREE DELIVERY 🚚 ———————————————————- Order yours now. #perfume #scent #designer #authentic #top #blouse #fashion #marsstore #aleezaperfumes #fashionista #luxurylifestyle #freedelivery #freedeliverystore #lagos #followforfollowback #womeninbusiness #organza
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#freedeliverystore #fashionista #marsstore #authentic #blouse
Jun 18, 2020 14:35
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Who loves thieir house smelling lovely and welcoming? I do 🙋🏻‍♀️ and our reed diffusers are the best in the market for long lasting fragrance inspired scents. 100ml can last for up to 4 months Dm and get your hands on one today. Try it and love it 😍 Shop and follow @myscentbox for long lasting luxury fragrances at discounted prices. #myscentbox #luxury #perfume #scent #smell #addiction #perfect #royal #pure #affordable #hisandhers #idealgifts
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#perfume #royal #perfect #hisandhers #myscentbox
Jun 18, 2020 14:35
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รุ่นใหม่ล่าสุด!! Armani Acqua Di Gio Profondo 40ml เค้าเตอร์ 3,400฿. ♥️ขายเพียง 2,190 ฿ ส่งฟรี สคบ ครบ♥️. เพราะคำจำกัดความของ Profondo คือ บุรุษผู้รักอิสระเสรี เต็มไปด้วยมิติที่ลึกซึ้ง เจ้าของจิตวิญญาณอันสุขุมที่ยากจะหยั่งถึงเท่ะความลึกของท้องน้ำสีคราม ∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞. ✅Perfume official น้ำหอมแท้100% ✅ทุกขวดสามารถเช็คโค้ดได้ค่ะ ❌ไม่แกะกล่อง ❌ไม่ใช่ขวดตัดตำหนิ ❌ไม่สิงคโปร์ ไม่ฮ่องกง/ไม่ขายยุโรป no box ❌ไม่ขายของปลอม ❌ของแท้ไม่มีเกรดใดๆทั้งสิ้น 💸ไม่แท้ยินดีคืนเงิน ∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞ 👉🏻ติดต่อสอบถาม / สั่งซื้อสินค้า 🎯LINE : @perfumebyuk (มี@ข้างหน้านะคะ) IG : Perfume_officialuk #น้ำหอมเค้าเตอร์ #รับตัวแทนจำหน่าย #bvl #sale #น้ำหอมพร้อมส่ง #น้ำหอมผู้หญิง #perfume_officialuk #น้ำหอมแท้ #น้ำหอมหิ้ว #น้ำหอมแท้นำเข้า #เทสเตอร์ #น้ำหอมเทสเตอร์ #tester #น้ำหอมยุโรป #น้ำหอมแบรนด์เนม #น้ำหอมกล่องซีล #perfume #ไวออล #perfumesale #ตามหา #น้ำหอมผู้ชาย #พรีออเดอร์ #รับหิ้วของ #น้ำหอมมินิ #น้ำหอมแบ่งขาย #น้ำหอมแท้แบ่งขาย #giftset #ของขวัญ #น้ำหอมไวออล #โลชั่นน้ำหอม
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#perfume_officialuk #sale #giftset #tester #perfumesale
Jun 18, 2020 14:35
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We’re on sale. 😍 Limited Stocks only. Bath and Body Works Fragrance Mist | 236 ml ⚫️ swipe left for more scents! ⚫️ Authentic. From US. See feedback. ☺️ SMS & Viber: 0916-558-1628 ▪️▪️▪️ Shopee customer? Search our online shop: angelsgeschaft ▪️▪️▪️ Available products: #buriqueniproducts #buriqueniperfumes ▪️▪️▪️ #bathandbodyworks #bathandbodyworksph #authenticperfumes #bbw #bbwph #perfumes #perfumesph #perfume #perfumeph #cologne #cologneph #bodymist #bodymistph #fragrancemist #fragrancemistph #BBWperfume #BBWperfumes #BBWperfumesPH #bbwmists #bbwmist #bbwfragrancemist #bbwfragrancemistsph #bathandbodyperfume #bathandbodyperfumes #authenticperfume #authenticperfumes #authenticperfumesphilippines
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#bathandbodyperfumes #perfume #perfumesph #perfumeph #bbwperfumes
Jun 18, 2020 14:35
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Prada Luna Rossa Carbon . . . ❌KW❌OS PARFUM ASLI ORIGINAL TESTER Produk merupakan real pict and realstok Parfum original tester di lengkapi box , unbox , Kondisi parfum full 100% Minat hubungi bio kami di atas ⬆ #parfum #perfume #jualparfum #parfumori #parfumoriginal #parfumtester #testerparfum #parfummurah #parfumcowo #parfumcewe #parfumasli #jualparfum #parfumorimurah #parfumcowo #parfumcewe #parfumchanel #parfumtomford #parfumchloe #parfumvercase #parfumburberry #parfumgucci #parfumbvlgari #parfumlancome #parfumelisaab #parfumdior #parfumjomalone #parfumtomford #parfumorimurah #parfumnbondno9 #Tomfordlostcherry #acquadiparma #bluemediterraneo #pradalunarossacarbon
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#parfumtomford #testerparfum #parfumcewe #parfumlancome #parfumburberry
Jun 18, 2020 14:35
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Smell of sea, smell of Ortigia. The luxurious perfume #Ortigiasicilia, formulated with natural ingredients indigenous to Sicily. A tribute to those who arrive at our port with their yacht . . . #siracusa #ortigiasiracusa #yacht #yachttravel #yachttravels #yachtlife #ortigiasicilia @ortigiasicilia #ortigiaperfumes #ortigiasiracusa #ortigiaisland #siracusabedda #siracusamente #boccadifuoco #sicilyachting #perfume #perfumeaddict #perfumaria #perfumelovers
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#yachtlife #siracusamente #boccadifuoco #yacht #ortigiasiracusa