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#onthisday in 1834 Edgar Degas was born. Degas, well known for his artwork idealizing the world of ballet, left behind numerous masterpieces in a number of mediums. . It is possible, though, that Degas suffered from light sensitivity and vision loss, a problem which affected his art and process. It may even had guided his choice in medium as he selected work that he could do without straining his vision. . Dr. Zeynel Karcioglu analyzes the letters and art left behind by this master painter to conclude that Degas may have had vision problems since his early childhood. To learn more, check out the link in our bio, and if you have a favorite work of art by Degas, let us know in the comments below. . (Image: “Alexander and Bucephalus”. Edgar Degas. 1861-2. National Gallery of Art) . . . . . . #hektoeninternational #unitingmedicinewithculture #medicalhumanities #humanities  #artandmedicinet #medicalhistory #histmed #medicalliterature  #surgery #cardiology #neurology #psychology #psychiatry  #patientexperience #journalofmedicine # #anatomy #meded #medicaleducation  #medicalscience #art #history #degas #vision #ophthalmology #arthistory #impressionism
Medicine has an important widespread impact on the people it serves. However, that doesn’t mean medicine need always be serious. As they say, laughter is the best medicine, and dipping into levity can help patients relax and physicians decrease burnout. . That’s why we’ve pulled this caricature showing a barber-surgeon’s shop populated by monkeys. Likely this was a way for the artist to poke fun at practioners, relief stress, point out potentially less than stellar professionals,  and a way to decrease disparity between patients and their healers. . These are important issues to consider today, and while there are more effective ways than art like this, it certainly doesn’t hurt to chuckle at. . Which monkey from Boel’s piece is your favorite? Let us know in the comments. . (Image: “The Barber-Surgeon's Shop Operated by Monkeys” by Coryn Boel, After David Teniers II. Mid- 17th century. Credit: Philadelphia Museum of Art.) . . . . . . #hektoeninternational #unitingmedicinewithculture #medicalhumanities #humanities  #artandmedicinet #medicalhistory #histmed #medicalliterature #medicalethics  #surgery #cardiology #neurology #psychology #psychiatry #healthtalk  #journalofmedicine  #anatomy #meded #medicaleducation  #medicalscience #monkeys #art #humor #laugheristhebestmedicine #monkeybusiness #history
What does the humble frog have to do with medicine? . Well if you consider its role in the discovery of the electrical impulses found in nerves, then the frog has contributed a whole lot to medicine! . Luigi Galvani (who lends his name to the process of galvanization) was a polymath of grand proportions, studying medicine, science, and physics throughout his lifetime. He began inquiries into electricity by studying the reactions of frogs hooked up to a machine that gathered static electricity. Galvani began to dig deeper following an incident wherein his wife, preparing frogs for soup, caused a muscle contraction after touching the animal with her knife. . His work was much debated, and not entirely perfected in his lifetime. But his discoveries greatly contributed to later progress. To read more about his life and work, click on the link in our bio. . (Image: “Frog Hunting” by Thomas Rowlandson. 1790. Credit: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Public Domain.) . . . . . . #hektoeninternational #unitingmedicinewithculture #medicalhumanities #humanities  #artandmedicinet #medicalhistory #histmed #medicalliterature #medicalethics  #surgery #cardiology #neurology #psychology #psychiatry  #journalofmedicine #patient #anatomy #meded #medicaleducation  #physiciansofnote  #medicalscience #frogs #electricity #science #history #inventors #discovery
This image is representative of an experience many medical students know: dissection. As part of training to heal the living, medical practioners train on the dead. . Here we see the method for opening the left ventricle with the heart outside of the body. This particular text is focused more on autopsy and postmortem examinations, likely for cause of death, but the principle and practice is much the same. . The question remains, though, if dissection on cadavers is still a necessary part of medical training. Some argue that simulations can achieve the same results, and perhaps that there are other, less gruesome ways to learn anatomy. . To learn more about the history of, and conversation around, dissection and anatomy, take a look at some of our articles. We’d love to hear what you think in the comments. . (Image: page from “Postmortem pathology; a manual of the technic of post-mortem examinations and the interpretations to be drawn therefrom” by Henry W Cattell. 1906. Accessed via the Internet Archive. Contributed by the Library of Congress. Public Domain) . . . . . . #hektoeninternational #unitingmedicinewithculture #medicalhumanities #humanities  #artandmedicinet #medicalhistory #histmed #medicalliterature #medicalethics  #surgery #cardiology #neurology #psychology #psychiatry #healthtalk  #journalofmedicine #patient #anatomy #meded #medicaleducation #endoflife  #medicalscience #autopsy #anatomists #anatomylab #medschoollife #medstudent #medicalstudent
Writer Linda Clarke has focused on the stories in the health care communities for much of her career. These stories are heavy with images and emotion, each one a snapshot into the love and grief of living and dying. . She shared a few of these stories with us in her piece “How we love.” . “The visitor sees that daisies are a theme throughout the kitchen: the clock, salt and pepper shakers on the back of the stove, a border of trim along the bottom of the curtains in the window. She remembers the dog is named Daisy.  He sees her looking. ‘The wife loved daisies,’ he explains, suddenly shy. ‘I keep them up for the boy.’” . Read the rest at the link in our bio. . (Image: “Flower Girl in Holland” by George Hitchcock. 1887. Credit: The Art Institute of Chicago. Public Domain.) . . . . . . #hektoeninternational #unitingmedicinewithculture #medicalhumanities #humanities  #artandmedicinet #medicalhistory #histmed #medicalliterature #medicalethics  #surgery #cardiology #neurology #psychology #psychiatry #healthtalk  #patientexperience #journalofmedicine #patient #anatomy #meded #medicaleducation #endoflife  #medicalscience #death #narrativemedicine #storytelling #writing #literary
Dr. Sophia Louisa Jex-Blake was the first female doctor in Scotland. She began her dedication to her studies early, attending Queen’s College in London despite her parent’s objections. Later, she travelled to the United States where she met Lucy Sewall, a female physician. Here she realized her desire to pursue medicine herself, but was unable to pursue schooling in the US. . In the UK, she applied to the University of Edinburgh but was turned away as she was the only female student interested. She and four other women reapplied in 1869, and two additional female students joined them once their studies had begun. They faced intense harassment and were eventually denied their degrees. . Jex-Blake and the other Edinburgh Seven did not falter, instead pursuing education outside the UK, and many earned their medical licenses. Jex-Blake retired from practice and teaching in 1889, moving into the country with her companion and possible romantic partner Dr. Margaret Todd. She died in 1912, and Todd wrote her biography with materials left to her in Jex-Blake’s will. . Dr. Jex-Blake and the work of the Edinburgh seven paved the way for women in medicine, and we hope to feature other fantastic female physicians in the future. If you have a historic doctor you want us to feature, leave their name in the comments! . (Image: “Sophia Jex-Blake Aged 25” by Samuel Laurence. 1865. From the book “The Life of Sophia Jex-Blake” by Margaret Todd. Public Domain.) . . . . . . #hektoeninternational #unitingmedicinewithculture #medicalhumanities #humanities  #artandmedicinet #medicalhistory #histmed #medicalliterature #medicalethics  #surgery #cardiology #neurology #psychology #psychiatry  #journalofmedicine  #anatomy #meded #medicaleducation  #physiciansofnote  #medicalscience #history #womenshistory #womeninmedicine #femaledoctor #girlpower #feminism #feminist #womensrights
One should never expect a quiet night when working in the ER. . Medical student Henry Bair learns this lesson while working the night shift, and in the process comes to face the reality all physicians must. Sometimes the patient can’t be saved. . “Nothing else that could be done? No, that was not possible — there was still plenty that could be done. Wasn’t there? He shook his head, as though he could hear my thoughts, a barely perceptible movement. ‘It’s okay, you did your best,’ he said.  I could not make sense of it. I felt like I was free-falling from the high place I had been earlier, that tremulous perch of confidence I had balanced on after getting a good grade on a test.” . Read more at the link in our bio. . (Image: University College Hospital, London: the outpatients' waiting room and dispensary. Wood engraving, 1872. Credit: Wellcome Collection. CC BY) . . . . . . #hektoeninternational #unitingmedicinewithculture #medicalhumanities #humanities  #artandmedicinet #medicalhistory #histmed #medicalliterature #medicalethics  #surgery #cardiology #neurology #psychology #psychiatry #healthtalk  #journalofmedicine #patient #anatomy #meded #medicaleducation #endoflife  #medicalscience #medschool #medschoollife #education #er #medicalschool #medstudent #medicalstudent
Medicine, dentistry, and especially pharmacy have a long and colorful history of less than reputable cures. These cures often came with iconic figures, some real and some fictional, to advertise the product. . In 1770s London, one such figure was the “dentist” Martin van Butchell. Van Butchell mostly sold artificial teeth and gums, but his work is not what he is most famous for. As a means of advertising van Butchell was known to travel on a white horse or pony painted with purple spots. . His fame (or infamy) continued at home, as van Butchell had his wife embalmed and preserved after her death, and then set her up in a glass cabinet in his house’s front window. Reports differ as to whether this was done out of devotion, a desire to attract more business, or a secret clause in their marriage certificate, but it is certain that later when van Butchell remarried, his wife demanded Martin’s “dearly departed” be relocated. . Quack professionals like van Butchell are part of the long history of medical progress. Their behavior can be a catalyst for self reflection today, as well as a reminder of what the true goal of medical practice is – healing and connection with patients. . What do you think of Martin van Butchell and his purple painted pony? Let us know down below. . (Image: Martin van Butchell. Stipple engraving, 1803. Credit: Wellcome Collection. CC BY) . . . . . . #hektoeninternational #unitingmedicinewithculture #medicalhumanities #humanities  #artandmedicinet #medicalhistory #histmed #medicalliterature #medicalethics  #surgery #cardiology #neurology #psychology #psychiatry #healthtalk  #journalofmedicine  #anatomy #meded #medicaleducation  #physiciansofnote  #medicalscience #history #dentistry #quacks #quackdoctors
For many medical conditions pharmaceutical and drug treatments are essential to recovery. It is therefore distressing when patients cannot afford medication, or when medications are inappropriately prescribed and advertised to patients. . This is not the case in all countries and cultures, but it seems to persist in the US. Adil Menon and Dr. Ali Mchaourab explore the history and present of pharmaceutical marketing in America and conclude that the American environment is uniquely suited to exploitation tactics. . “Granting more control to pharmaceutical companies has allowed the industry to bypass healthcare providers by going straight to the consumer. Pharmaceutical companies have increased their influence on the medical literature and been granted access and leverage in the political system.” . Read more at the link in our bio. . (Image: Pills and vitamins. Credit: Kate Whitley. CC BY) . . . . . . #hektoeninternational #unitingmedicinewithculture #medicalhumanities #humanities  #artandmedicinet #medicalhistory #histmed #medicalliterature #medicalethics  #surgery #cardiology #neurology #psychology #psychiatry #healthtalk  #patientexperience #journalofmedicine #patient #anatomy #meded #medicaleducation  #medicalscience #ethics #pharmaceutical #pharmacy #marketing #business
The indomitable Sherlock Holmes is a literary icon. The most famous work of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, these novels have gone on to inspire adaptations, retellings, and reinterpretations of all kinds. But what about the original inspiration – the thing that birthed Holmes? . It’s been said that Conan Doyle based his master of deduction on one Dr. Joseph Bell, a Scottish surgeon known for following a logical observational method in his work. Born in 1837 the son of a surgeon, Bell went on to teach at the Edinburgh Medical School. .  Dr. Bell taught Conan Doyle as his professor, and during this time the doctor impressed on the author the importance of the small things when examining a patient – or when solving a mystery. Long after the first Holmes novels had been published, Dr. Bell may have been consulted in the hunt for Jack the Ripper, though the name of the man he accused has not been made public. . Dr. Bell’s impact on literature is a reminder of the impact of medicine on daily life, and the intermingling of medicine and the humanities. Both can remain separate, but they grow richer when combined. . What do you think of Conan Doyle’s inspiration? Let us know in the comments. . (Image: Portrait of Joseph Bell, M.D., F.R.C.S., J.P.D.L. (1837-1911). Half-length seated portrait, with Bell reading papers, facing the right. Credit: Wellcome Collection. CC BY) . . . . . . #hektoeninternational #unitingmedicinewithculture #medicalhumanities #humanities  #artandmedicinet #medicalhistory #histmed #medicalliterature #surgery #cardiology #neurology #psychology #psychiatry #journalofmedicine #anatomy #meded #medicaleducation #physiciansofnote #medicalscience #sherlock #sherlockholmes #literature #history #surgeons #deduction #mystery #murdermystery
The circus, today often considered a place for joy and entertainment, has historically been a sight of suffering for many considered different. This is especially true for those with disabilities or other visible medical conditions. This is obvious in the names given to the “oddities” featured in this circus poster, like the “Moss eared Girl” and the “Double Bodied Wonder.” . This trend of othering didn’t end when the freakshows closed, though. It continues today, in other ways, and writer Camille Kroll explores this in her article, “Enfreakment in the medicalization of differenece.” The full article is available now at the link in our bio. . (Image: “Barnum & Bailey Poster 1898-1899.” 1899. Uploaded to Wikimedia by Ddicksson. Public Domain.) . . . . . . #hektoeninternational #unitingmedicinewithculture #medicalhumanities #humanities  #artandmedicinet #medicalhistory #histmed #medicalliterature #medicalethics  #surgery #cardiology #neurology #psychology #psychiatry  #hektoengrandprix #patientexperience #journalofmedicine #patient #anatomy #meded #medicaleducation #medicalscience #circus #history #freakshow #ptbarnum
Today is Independence day in the US (where our journal is based). It is a day to celebrate, but also to reflect on the impact of history on the present, and the impact of our present on the future. . That’s something we do every day! . To join us in reading and reflecting on the history of medicine, and the history of medicine during the American Revolutionary War, click on the link in our bio. If our US readers find time between grilling and fireworks, we have plenty of excellent articles. . To stay updated, consider joining our newsletter, or keep up with us right here and on our other social media channels. . (Image: “Fire Works on the Night of the Fourth of July” by Winslow Homer published by Harper’s Weekly. Published July 11, 1868. Credit: The Art Institute of Chicago.) . . . . . . #hektoeninternational #unitingmedicinewithculture #medicalhumanities #humanities  #artandmedicinet #medicalhistory #histmed #medicalliterature #medicalethics #warandveterans #medicineandtravel #surgery #cardiology #neurology #psychology #psychiatry #healthtalk #hektoengrandprix #patientexperience #journalofmedicine #patient #anatomy #meded #medicaleducation #endoflife #physiciansofnote #famoushospitals #medicalscience
Human kind’s struggle to understand and overcome death has been part of its story since the very beginning. This is what allows stories like the epic of Gilgamesh to retain their power, even after over four thousand years. . The story also contains an interesting message to the field of medicine. Gilgamesh begins his quest seeking immortality, but ultimately comes to accept his eventual death. This begs the question: is medicine a quest to sustain life indefinitely, or does it have a separate goal? .  Anika Khan digs deep into this connection in her article, available at the link in our bio. Take a look, and let us know your thoughts down below. . (Image: “Hero mastering a lion” by Unknown. 713–706 BCE. Photograph by Marie-Lan Nguyen / Wikimedia Commons. Credit: Louvre Museum.) . . . . . . #hektoeninternational #unitingmedicinewithculture #medicalhumanities #humanities  #artandmedicinet #medicalhistory #histmed #medicalliterature #medicalethics #medicineandtravel #surgery #cardiology #neurology #psychology #psychiatry #patientexperience #journalofmedicine #patient #anatomy #meded #medicaleducation #endoflife #medicalscience #literature #history #myth #death #mythology
Dr. Marie E. Zakrzewska was a Polish physician who later worked in the United States to establish the second hospital in the country run by women physicians and surgeons. . Dr. Zakrzewska’s career began early, as she spent her childhood making rounds with her mother who was a midwife. Later, Dr. Zakrzewska trained at the same school for midwives that her mother had – the Royal Charité hospital. . Upon completion of her studies Dr. Zakrzewska emigrated to the US. She found little support for her career there, but was encouraged by Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell and later worked in the New York Infirmary for Women and Children, a hospital collaboratively run and operated by Dr. Blackwell, Blackwell’s sister Emily who was also a physician, and Dr. Zakrzewska. . She later taught obstetrics at the New England Female Medical College, but realizing her students had few true clinical opportunities upon graduation, opened the New England Hospital for Women and Children. Her hospital remains open today, now called the Dimock Community Health Center. . Pioneering women have always been a part of medical history, and we are excited to continue to explore their stories. . (Image: “Portrait of Maria E. Zakrzewska.” ca. 1845-1855. New England Women’s Club 1868-1908. Credit: Harvard University, Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America.) . . . . . . #hektoeninternational #unitingmedicinewithculture #medicalhumanities #humanities  #artandmedicinet #medicalhistory #histmed #medicalliterature #medicalethics  #surgery #cardiology #neurology #psychology #psychiatry #journalofmedicine #patient #anatomy #meded #medicaleducation #physiciansofnote #famoushospitals #medicalscience #womenshistory #womeninmedicine #womendoctors #history #girlpower
This Turkish postcard shows a nurse reading a letter to a wounded man. The nurse appears to smile, even as her patient remains seemingly indifferent to whatever news she has brought him. The postcard conjures a number of questions. How was he injured? Is he far from home? Who has written him? Where is his family? Is the letter good news? . We may not get answers, but these sorts of questions can guide patients and professionals alike when interacting in medical spaces. Engaging with others with curiosity and kindness, as the nurse in this postcard portrays, can break down barriers and allow a more human connection to emerge. . What’s the story here? And what is the story you’d like to tell? Let us know down below. . (Image: “A nurse is sitting at the bedside of a wounded man with a bandage over his eyes; she is reading him a letter.” Photographic postcard, ca. 1930. Credit: Wellcome Collection. CC BY 4.0.) . . . . . . #hektoeninternational #unitingmedicinewithculture #medicalhumanities #humanities  #artandmedicinet #medicalhistory #histmed #medicalliterature #medicalethics #warandveterans #medicineandtravel #surgery #cardiology #neurology #psychology #psychiatry  #patientexperience #journalofmedicine #patient #anatomy #meded #medicaleducation  #medicalscience #nurses #nursing #history #art
June 27th is National HIV Testing Day in the US. It is a day of awareness encouraging individuals to be certain of their HIV status. It is also a day that brings to mind questions about the impact of an HIV diagnosis, and the choice and power in disclosing HIV status. . Dr. Tafadzwa Kasambira shares the story of a mother and daughter navigating this reality in his piece “Disclosure,” available at the link in our bio. . “When I went to see her, Rachel did not look ill. Her mother hovered by the bedside while I interviewed the teenager, preferring to stand while we spoke. I noted fleetingly the girl’s calmness, her easy breathing – all reassuring signs for someone with suspected respiratory problems. I was concerned, though, that she needed extra oxygen delivered to her lungs through nasal prongs. In constant movement, her mother, a woman much smaller than her daughter, paced about the room clutching her own chest with both arms as if she was cold, adding to her daughter’s curt but complete answers to my questions.” . Read more in the Hektoen International Journal. . (Image: “Nurse with a Boy/The Mother and the Crying Child” by Edvard Munch. 1902. Credit: The Art Institute of Chicago.) . . . . . . #hektoeninternational #unitingmedicinewithculture #medicalhumanities #humanities #artandmedicinet #medicalhistory #histmed #medicalliterature #medicalethics  #surgery #cardiology #neurology #psychology #psychiatry  #patientexperience #journalofmedicine #patient #anatomy #meded  #medicalscience #hivtestingday #hiv #family
One’s smile, and one’s teeth, is the first way that they greet the world. Would you replace your teeth with dentures before you needed them? For many, this measure may seem extreme, but in the early 1900s in England, perfect false teeth became the most important accessory. .  Writer Liz Jones, the runner up for Hektoen International’s Grand Prix Essay Competition presents the history of the pursuit of a perfect smile, and its personal impact on her family through her grandmother. . “In the popular press, advertisements for “artificial teeth” jostled against those for corsets, hair renewal creams, and other staples of the classified pages,” she writes. . Click the link in our bio to learn more about the history of vulcanite dentures, Novocaine, and the demand for dentures. . (Image: Longitudinal section of the teeth. Credit: Wellcome Collection. CC BY 4.0) . . . . . . #hektoeninternational #unitingmedicinewithculture #medicalhumanities #humanities  #artandmedicinet #medicalhistory #histmed #medicalliterature #medicalethics  #surgery #cardiology #neurology #psychology #psychiatry  #hektoengrandprix #patientexperience #journalofmedicine #patient #anatomy #meded #medicaleducation  #medicalscience #dentistry #dentures #history #fashion #dentists #family
The winner of Hektoen International’s Grand Prix Essay competition is Dr. Carrie Barron’s “Character, genius, and a missing person in medicine.” Her writing tells the story of Dr. Vivien Thomas, the underappreciated surgeon who revolutionized heart surgery. . Back in February we featured Dr. Vivien Thomas on our Instagram. We mentioned then that we couldn’t capture his full story in one post, and so we are glad to share a deeper look into that story now. Dr. Thomas and the other surgeons helped save the lives of hundreds of children were seeming underdogs, swept under the rug of history for many. That, and their impressive contributions, is why we are glad to tell Dr. Thomas’s story in our journal. . To read Dr. Barron’s full article, click on the link in our bio. . (Image: The heart, circa 1749. Credit: Wellcome Collection. CC BY 4.0) . . . . . . #hektoeninternational #unitingmedicinewithculture #medicalhumanities #humanities  #artandmedicinet #medicalhistory #histmed #medicalliterature #medicalethics  #surgery #cardiology #neurology #psychology #psychiatry  #hektoengrandprix  #journalofmedicine #patient #anatomy #meded #medicaleducation  #physiciansofnote  #medicalscience #blackhistory #history #doctorsofcolor #heart #surgeons
We are excited to announce the results of our Grand Prix Essay competition and the publication of our new summer issue! We received an impressive number of submissions, and were happy to read work covering such a wide number of facets of the medical humanities. . We will be featuring our winner and runner up here on Instagram over the next few days, but to read the work by our winner, runner up, and finalists right now please check out the link in our bio. . If you’ve already read some of the new work (shout out to our newsletter subscribers) let us know your favorites in the comments. And if you haven’t, what are you waiting for? Grab a friend and a cup of tea. There’s plenty of great writing waiting. . (Image: “Afternoon Tea Party Date:” by Mary Cassatt printed with Leroy. 1890–91. Credit: The Art Institute of Chicago.) . . . . . . #hektoeninternational #unitingmedicinewithculture #medicalhumanities #humanities  #artandmedicinet #medicalhistory #histmed #medicalliterature #medicalethics #warandveterans  #surgery #cardiology #neurology #psychology #psychiatry #hektoengrandprix #journalofmedicine #patient #anatomy #meded #medicaleducation #endoflife #physiciansofnote #medicalscience #litmag #literaryjournal #writing #art #litmags #writerscommunity
Today is the first day of summer in the northern hemisphere, and many are preparing for vacations and camping trips. Outdoor adventure always comes with some risk of insect encounter, and those planning long stays in the wilderness would be wise to brush up on methods for finding and removing pests like ticks. . The woman in this painting from the 1700s, though, is well past that point, and must now check herself for fleas inside her living space. . Many in the western world no longer need to check for pests and parasites within their own home – but this fact is not universal. As such, understanding diseases spread by host vectors like fleas, ticks, and mosquitoes remains an important aspect of medical training, and exploring the history of these infectious diseases worthwhile. . Hektoen International has an entire section on Infectious diseases available. Check it out and let us know what you found. . (Image: “Woman Looking For Fleas” attributed to Giuseppe Maria Crespi. c. 1710/20. Credit: The Art Institute of Chicago.) . . . . . . #hektoeninternational #unitingmedicinewithculture #medicalhumanities #humanities  #artandmedicinet #medicalhistory #histmed #medicalliterature #medicalethics  #medicineandtravel #surgery #cardiology #neurology #psychology #psychiatry #healthtalk  #journalofmedicine #patient #anatomy #meded #medicaleducation  #medicalscience #art #fleas #ticks #summer #firstdayofsummer #safety
These images are part of a series of observations on a patient in an asylum called Albertine M. In some of the images, Albertine reacts to pressure on varius parts of her skull. In others, as it is here, she is presented in a normal state (fig 1) and in a cataleptic state. . Catalepsy usually accompanies other psychiatric or neurologic conditions such as epilepsy, and produces rigidity of the body and loss of muscle control. . Images like this one may not have been produced with the patient’s full consent, and so raise ethical questions for those studying and documenting illnesses today. Even still, we can remain grateful to past efforts to understand and record our human condition. . (Image: Observations on Albertine M... Credit: Wellcome Collection. CC BY) . . . . . . #hektoeninternational #unitingmedicinewithculture #medicalhumanities #humanities  #artandmedicinet #medicalhistory #histmed #medicalliterature #medicalethics #surgery #cardiology #neurology #psychology #psychiatry #healthtalk #patientexperience #journalofmedicine #patient #anatomy #meded #medicaleducation #medicalscience #ethics #mentalhealth #history #photography #neurology
Illustrating scientific and medical ideas for a younger audience can be extremely difficult. This is the task artist Clare Rosean takes on in her series “Monica fights the flu.” . This image is of the flu virus first encountering a healthy cell. Rosean works hard to portray viruses in a way that is accurate, while still reducing them down enough to be understood. For example, the usage of hands to represent the hemagglutinin on the surface of flu virus virions translates the binding and grasping in a simpler way while still suggesting the shape of each structure. . The remainder of the series illustrates the remainder of the infection and immune response cycle. Check it out at the link in our bio. . (Image: “The flu grabs a healthy cell” from “Viral combat: Monica fights the flu” by Clare Rosean. 2012.) . . . . . . #hektoeninternational #unitingmedicinewithculture #medicalhumanities #humanities  #artandmedicinet #medicalhistory #histmed #medicalliterature #medicalethics #surgery #cardiology #neurology #psychology #psychiatry #healthtalk  #patientexperience #journalofmedicine #patient #anatomy #meded #medicaleducation  #medicalscience #illustration #art #scienceart #flu
This image of a physician at the bedside of a patient portrays two core practices early doctors used to diagnose their patients. . Firstly, the pulse. The physician here grasps his patient’s wrist, checking for the strength and quality of her pulse. Secondly is the blood or urine of the patient. This painting is reminiscent of Trophime Bigot’s painting “A Doctor Examining Urine” but the color suggests blood or the presence of blood. . Both the pulse and the fluids of the body remain important diagnostic tools today – albeit analyzed now with different, more complex tools than only the hands and eyes. Still, it is interesting and important to recognize that medicine has evolved to utilize more and more of what doctor’s already considered significant to diagnosis. . (Image: A physician at the bedside. Oil painting by Mathijs Naiveu. Credit: Wellcome Collection. CC BY) . . . . . . #hektoeninternational #unitingmedicinewithculture #medicalhumanities #humanities  #artandmedicinet #medicalhistory #histmed #medicalliterature #medicalethics #medicineandtravel #surgery #cardiology #neurology #psychology #psychiatry #healthtalk #patientexperience #journalofmedicine #patient #anatomy #meded #medicaleducation #medicalscience #art #history #painting #doctors #doctorlife
Neuroaesthetics is the study of aesthetic perception. This field is new, and full of interesting possibilities. One possibility is a link between the brain during aesthetic experiences and psychotic episodes. . “Modern neuroimaging techniques reveal the medial orbital frontal cortex activated during the perception of beauty. It is precisely this prefrontal region of the brain that is poorly regulated in psychotic disorders.” . Dr. C. Ann Conn explores this relationship in her article for Hektoen International. In it she describes episodes of psychosis brought on by viewing art, the primitive grammar of the mind, and her family’s personal experience with psychosis. . Read more at the link in our bio. . (Image: Detail of “The Rainbow” by Salvador Dalí. 1972. Credit: M.T. Abraham Center for the Visual Arts. Public Domain.) . . . . . . #hektoeninternational #unitingmedicinewithculture #medicalhumanities #humanities  #artandmedicinet #medicalhistory #histmed #medicalliterature #medicalethics  #surgery #cardiology #neurology #psychology #psychiatry  #patientexperience #journalofmedicine #patient #anatomy #meded #medicaleducation  #medicalscience #art #aesthetics #psychosis #neuroaesthetics #neuroscience
Father’s day in the US is approaching. The relationship between father and child is sometimes complicated, and it only grows more complicated as parents age and medical issues arise. . Writer Maggie Schwarz describes Father’s Day in the hospital as her father undergoes treatment for cancer. . She writes “Viewed objectively, he is lucky to have lived this long. He has outlived most American men, who reach an average age of 73. Yet I beckon, “Daddy!” It is so scary to see him out of control, and the thought of his not being around is unimaginable. He has always been here, for better or worse, like a rock. Impossibly difficult and cantankerous at times, but very much here.” . Read more at the link in our bio. . (Image: “The First Dance Lesson, from Les Papas” by Honoré Victorin Daumier. 1848. Credit: The Art Institute of Chicago.) . . . . . . #hektoeninternational #unitingmedicinewithculture #medicalhumanities #humanities  #artandmedicinet #medicalhistory #histmed #medicalliterature #medicalethics  #surgery #cardiology #neurology #psychology #psychiatry #healthtalk #patientexperience #journalofmedicine #patient #anatomy #meded #medicaleducation  #medicalscience #aging #cancer #family #fathersday #parents #narrative
On this day in 1886 King Louis (or Ludwig) II of Bavaria died. Louis II was known as “The Swan King” in Englang, and he spent much of his time devoted to art and architecture in his kingdom. . His devotion was perhaps too extreme, as a group of physicians and psychiatrists at the time were coerced into declaring the king unfit to lead, and thus removed from leadership. This raises a number of ethical questions, some of which are a bit too pertinent to today. . Dr. Jesus Ramirez-Bermudez explores the life of the swan king in the article available at the link in our bio. Check it out to learn more. . (Image: “König Ludwig II. von Bayern (1845-1886) im Krönungsmantel mit Page” by Heinrich Georg Dendl. second half of 19th century. Photo vom Autor, Wokowiki, 2009. Credit: Rathaus (Wasserburg am Inn).) . . . . . . #hektoeninternational #unitingmedicinewithculture #medicalhumanities #humanities  #artandmedicinet #medicalhistory #histmed #medicalliterature #medicalethics  #surgery #cardiology #neurology #psychology #psychiatry #healthtalk  #patientexperience #journalofmedicine #patient #anatomy #meded #medicaleducation  #physiciansofnote  #medicalscience#ethics #history #art #architecture
This image is a slightly tweaked version of an illustration that appeared in “The Journal of laboratory and clinical medicine” in 1915. Each bottle contains a different pH indicator – substances which change or present color when a certain pH is reached in a solution. . The most common of these indicators is litmus or litmus paper which tests for acidity. But, as is clear from this image, there are a wide variety of indicators, each with a specific color change and range of pH values they respond to. Some, like the phenolphthalein in the bottom right corner of this image, may go through as many as three transitions of color depending on pH. . While indicators like these may not be as commonly used in treatment, they are essential to diagnosis and to education. . Have you ever used pHi indicators like these before? Let us know in the comments. . . . . . . #hektoeninternational #unitingmedicinewithculture #medicalhumanities #humanities  #artandmedicinet #medicalhistory #histmed #medicalliterature #medicalethics  #surgery #cardiology #neurology #psychology #psychiatry #healthtalk #journalofmedicine  #anatomy #meded #medicaleducation  #medicalscience #history #chemistry #ph #science #sciencehistory #chemistsofinstagram

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